The most common services provided by civil society actors at the ground level through various long and short‐term programmes include:
Education: provision of scholarship programmes, tuition classes, school material to children in need, educational loans, meals for school children (selected schools), vocational training and computer courses.
Health and Nutrition: educational programmes in schools and communities on HIV/AIDS, SRH, substance abuse and other health issues, provision of spectacles and eye care, mobile health clinics.
ECCD: management of ECCD Centres, Day Care Centres (DCCs) and Child Development Centres (CDCs), health clinics for infants and mothers, awareness raising of parents and community leaders.
Child Protection: awareness on child abuse, protection and rights including early marriage and substance abuse, management of Children’s Homes and supporting State institutions for children, de‐ institutionalization (e.g. through family strengthening); awareness raising of parents and community leaders, Child Protection Committees/Groups in communities, mobile legal clinics, trainings on counselling, etc.
Child Participation: Children’s Clubs; supporting Children’s Councils and forums; leadership training. Socio‐economic: micro‐credit or loan programmes, livelihood assistance, water‐sanitation and housing, community development General: awareness raising on services offered by the government, capacity building programmes for different target groups, initiatives to promote community participation, e.g. citizenship juries where people are given a forum to learn from each other’s experience, mobilizing volunteers. Civil Society investments come from the voluntary sector (NGOs, CSOs, development partners, religious bodies, and the private sector). This study focuses on the contributions of the voluntary sector. There are only few NGOs identified as key services providers currently working in the villages in Southern Province villages Habaraduwa and Kotapola DSDs. This includes: Save the Children, Sarvodaya, Habaraduwa Participatory Development Foundation, Caritas, INDECOS, Practical Action, Sri Lanka Family Planning Association (FPA) and Senehasa Foundation. However in Viskam Mawatha (Habaraduwa DSD) there is no external support from NGOs or attention from the government.
All projects are carried out with State approval, either in collaboration with the government or independently. INGOs and development partners including the UN, bilateral, and multilateral agencies such as the World Bank, usually finance the government directly through loans or grants. Investments made by these agencies could only be seen in the education and health sectors, highlighting the lack of priority and recognition afforded to child protection and development. The investments of the private sector on the other hand are difficult to be tracked as not all contributions are made through the government or have been systematically recorded.